NZ Deprivation Index 2013 for Northland*

2013

What is it?
The New Zealand Deprivation Index (NZ Dep) uses information relating to employment, income, educational qualifications, access to a car and telecommunications/internet, living space, support, and home ownership, to produce an indicator of ‘deprivation’ for small geographical areas. Area units are allocated a deprivation decile, ranging from 1 (least deprived) to 10 (most deprived). The map below shows the NZ Dep for areas in Northland in 2013.

Why is it important?
Socioeconomic status is tightly linked with health and wellbeing. This is important for us to understand the population’s health and social needs, and their health care requirements.



What does this mean for Northland?
47% of area units in Northland were classified as being highly deprived (decile 9 and 10) by the NZ Dep 2013 Index. These levels of deprivation were experienced in both rural and urban areas of Northland. Poverty and material hardship has significant implications for the health status of our population and their ability to access health services.


*New Zealand Deprivation Index 2013, Massey University.

Household Income Northland vs. New Zealand*

2013

What is it?
The indicator shows the percentage of households within Northland that fall within a specified annual household income bracket, ranging from $0 to $100k or more.

Why is it important?
Income enables people to meet their basic needs, and access goods and services to support their lives. Income is directly related to health outcomes, with lower income earners experiencing comparatively poorer health and wellbeing.


What does this mean for Northland?
The median annual household income in Northland was $47,000, substantially lower than the national median of $63,800. 25% of Northland households had an income of less than $30,000 compared to 19% of New Zealand households. Households that earn less than 60% of the median income, i.e., $30,000, were considered to be below poverty line.


* Census 2013, Stats NZ.
Based on poverty measures Child Poverty Monitor, NZ.

Household Crowding, Northland*

2013

What is it?
The indicator shows the percentage of Northland households that are “overcrowded”. The analysis is based on Census 2013 data; a household is considered crowded if there is more than one person per room or there are insufficient bedrooms to accommodate the usual residents within the household.

Why is it important?
Adequate housing, where all occupants can live in a warm, dry, and sufficient space, is required for optimal health and wellbeing. Those living in overcrowded homes are at a greater risk of infectious diseases and respiratory conditions, which impacts on health, time at work, and educational attendance.


What does this mean for Northland?
10% of Northland households were overcrowded, twice that of the national proportion (5%). Northland households whose occupants identified as Māori were nearly 4 times more likely to experience overcrowding than those identifying as non-Māori (22% and 6%) respectively.


* Analysis of Household Crowding Based on Census 2013 Data, December 2014, Ministry of Health.
1 Canadian National Occupancy Standard.

Education attainment in Northland compared to New Zealand*

2013

What is it?
The indicator shows the highest level of education achieved by Northlanders aged 15 years and older, compared to the New Zealand (NZ) population. Level 1 - 3 are comparable to secondary school NCEA. Levels 7 - 10 represent completion of a university degree programme.

Why is it important?
Educational achievement is a significant determinant of health. Higher levels of education attainment are linked to employment opportunity, greater access to economic and social resources, and better health literacy.


What does this mean for Northland?
23% of Northlanders leave school with no qualifications, a higher proportion compared to NZ (19%) as a whole. Although, the proportion of those has decreased by 6% from 2006 to 2013 (40% and 34% respectively); it remained higher for NZ Māori compared to non-Māori. At the higher level of education attainment, 11% of Northlanders held a qualification Level 7 and above (compared to 17% in NZ as a whole). This proportion has increased since 2006 (8%).


Te Reo Māori in Northland*

2013

What is it?
The indicator shows the proportion of Northlanders who can have a conversation about everyday things in te reo Māori. The indicator also shows the percentage of Northlanders whose main language is te reo, and those who use te reo regularly at home.

Why is it important?
Language is intertwined with culture and a sense of belonging, and is an important as a broader determinant of health. Te reo is a taonga for NZ Māori and for Aotearoa as a whole. Language enables us to communicate effectively. Communication is essential to delivering and receiving quality health care. Understanding languages spoken within our population is important for health service planning and delivery and for empowering our community to make informed decisions about their health.


What does this mean for Northland?
Northlanders identifying as Māori were significantly more able to have a conversation about everyday things in te reo Māori than non-Māori (25 % compared to 1%). A quarter of Māori adults also reported that te reo was regularly spoken at home. For 5 % of Māori living in Northland te reo Māori was the main language spoken.


Did you know?


Kia kaha means to encourage strength or confidence. Check out te Wiki o te Reo Māori website for ways to give learning te reo Māori a go.


Source credit: te Wiki o te Reo Māori


*NDHB Māori Health Profile 2015, Te Ropu Rangahu Hauora a Eru Pomare, University of Wellington.

Daily Smokers in Northland*

2014 - 2017

What is it?
The trend graph represents the population percentage of ‘daily smokers’ in Northland (aged 15 years and over) between 2014 and 2017. Daily smokers are defined as current smokers who smoke every day, and have smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their whole life. The shaded area represents the 95% confidence interval for each estimate.

Why is it important?
Smoking causes a multitude of adverse health effects leading to poorer health amongst users throughout their life. In the short term, smokers are more likely to experience respiratory symptoms, lower immunity against infection and overall report poorer health. Smoking over a longer time frame increases your risk of cancer, stroke, cardiovascular and renal disease. Tobacco use is responsible for about 25% of cancer deaths in New Zealand.

Smoking cessation initiatives along with environmental changes (e.g. SmokeFree environments) can support current smokers to quit. A lower rate of tobacco use also reduces second hand exposure within the population.


What does this mean for Northland?
In 2017, 20% of adults, aged 15 years and older, living in Northland were daily smokers. This was significantly higher than adults within New Zealand as a whole (15%). From 2014 to 2017, the proportion of daily smokers in Northland has been significantly higher than New Zealand as a whole.


Did you know?


Explore what happens to our lungs when we smoke. This interactive animation is brought to you by the Auckland Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland.


Source credit: Tobacco Control Research Tūranga, MedTech CoRE and Auckland Bioengineering Institute


* New Zealand Health Survey, Adult, Tobacco Use 2013/14-2016/17 (age-standardised), Ministry of Health.
A 95% confidence interval is a range of values that one can be 95% certain contains the true mean or proportion of the population.
Cancer NZ.

Proportion of Children who are Overweight or Obese Living in Northland*

2014 - 2017

What is it?
The indicator shows the percentage of children aged 0-4 years old who are overweight or obese in Northland. The trend line shows how this percentage has changed over time between 2014 and 2017. The shaded area represents the 95% confidence interval for each estimate.

Why is it important?
Being overweight or obese in childhood has a significant impact on psychological, physical and overall health. Overweight/obese children experience a lower quality of life. Childhood obesity is a strong predictor for obesity in adulthood and the likelihood of developing associated conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease.


What does this mean for Northland?
In 2017, similar to the proportion of children in New Zealand as a whole, 34% of Northland children aged 0-14 years old were overweight or obese. The percentage of children who were obese or overweight has remained stable for New Zealand from 2014 to 2017 (32% to 33%).


* New Zealand Health Survey, Children, Body Size 2013/14—2016/17 (age-standardised), Ministry of Health.
A 95% confidence interval is a range of values that one can be 95% certain contains the true mean or proportion of the population.

Proportion of Adults who are Overweight or Obese Living in Northland*

2014 - 2017

What is it?
The indicator shows the proportion of those aged 15 years and older, living in Northland, who are overweight (Body Mass Index (BMI)= 25 - 29.9) or obese (BMI > 30). The shaded area represents the 95% confidence interval for each estimate.

Why is it important?
Obesity is associated with a number of health conditions including; type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. Obesity and its associated conditions impact on individuals’ health outcomes, and their health services requirements. Maintaining a healthy weight can help prevent health problems, as well as manage existing conditions.


What does this mean for Northland?
In 2017, 73% of adults living in Northland were defined as overweight or obese, a significantly higher proportion compared to New Zealand as a whole. The prevalence of those obese/overweight in Northland has increased from 2014 to 2017 (69% to 73%). Conversely, this prevalence has remained relatively stable for the New Zealand population during this period of time.


* New Zealand Health Survey, Adults, Body Size 2013/14-2016/17 (age-standardised), Ministry of Health.
Body Mass Index= body weight (kg)/height (m)2.
A 95% confidence interval is a range of values that one can be 95% certain contains the true mean or proportion of the population.

Infants Exclusively Breastfed in Northland*

2014 - 2017

What is it?
The indicator shows the percentage of infants in Northland who were exclusively breastfed at 4 and 6 months of age. Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as the infant receiving only breast milk, and no other liquids or solids, including water. The shaded area represents the 95% confidence interval for each estimate.

Why is it important?
The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age as the optimal way of feeding infants and supporting a good start in life. Breastfeeding is protective for the infant against acute illnesses, including infection, and asthma.


What does this mean for Northland?
In 2017, over half (53%) of babies in Northland were exclusively breastfed for their first 4 months of life. However, a much lower percentage (12%) of babies being breastfed up to at least 6 months of age was observed. When compared to New Zealand as a whole, breastfeeding rates in Northland do not significantly differ.


* New Zealand Health Survey, Children, Nutrition 2013/14-2016/17 (age-standardised), Ministry of Health.
A 95% confidence interval is a range of values that one can be 95% certain contains the true mean or proportion of the population.

Fruit and Vegetable Intake of Children Living in Northland*

2014 - 2017

What is it?
The indicator shows the percentage of Northlanders aged 2-14 years who have an ‘adequate intake’ of fruits and vegetables daily. An ‘adequate intake’ is defined as having at least of 2-3 servings of vegetables and at least 2 servings of fruit per day. The graph shows how this has changed over time from 2014 to 2017. The shaded area represents the 95% confidence interval for each estimate.

Why is it important?
An adequate intake of fruit and vegetables is a marker of a healthy diet in children. A healthy diet is crucial to the growth and development of children, and their general wellbeing. A poor diet is associated with a number of chronic illnesses, such as childhood obesity, early onset of type 2 diabetes, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Achieving a healthy diet is complex and is highly influenced by the environment in which we live. While education plays a role in deciding what we consume, the price of food, its availability and how easy it is for us to access, are important drivers in our diets.


What does this mean for Northland?
In 2017, 48% of children living in Northland achieved the recommended ‘5+ a day’ of fruit and vegetables. This proportion was relatively stable over the measurement period (2014 to 2017). There was no significant difference in fruit and vegetable intake amongst Northland children when compared to New Zealand as a whole.


* New Zealand Health Survey , Children, Nutrition 2013/14-2016/17 (age-standardised), Ministry of Health.
A 95% confidence interval is a range of values that one can be 95% certain contains the true mean or proportion of the population.

Fruit and Vegetable Intake of Adults Living in Northland*

2014 - 2017

What is it?
The indicator shows the percentage of Northlanders aged 15 years and older, who have an ‘adequate intake’ of fruits and vegetables per day. An ‘adequate intake’ is defined as at least of 3 servings of vegetables and 2 servings of fruit per day. The graph also shows the trend in how intake has changed over time from 2014 to 2017. The shaded area represents the 95% confidence interval for each estimate.

Why is it important?
A healthy diet is an important component to supporting health and wellbeing. Consuming too much sugar and certain types of fat are risk factors to a number of health conditions, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Achieving a healthy diet is complex and is highly influenced by the environment in which we live. Education plays a role in what we eat; the price of food, its availability and how easy it is for us to access are also important drivers in our diets.


What does this mean for Northland?
In 2017, around 40% of adults living in Northland achieved the recommended intake of ‘5+ a day’ of fruit and vegetables. This proportion was relatively stable over time (2014 – 2017). There was no significant difference in fruit and vegetable intake in Northland adults compared to New Zealand as a whole.


* New Zealand Health Survey , Adult, Nutrition 2013/14-2016/17 (age-standardised), Ministry of Health.
A 95% confidence interval is a range of values that one can be 95% certain contains the true mean or proportion of the population.

Consumption of Fizzy Drinks in Children Living in Northland*

2014 - 2017

What is it?
The indicator shows the percentage of children aged 2 to 14 years old, living in Northland who consume three or more fizzy or energy drinks per week. The graph provides the trend from 2014 to 2017. The shaded area represents the 95% confidence interval for each estimate.

Why is it important?
Sugar-sweetened drinks, which include fizzy and energy drinks, are the single largest contributor of sugar in children’s diets in NZ. Consumption is linked with childhood obesity; as fizzy drink consumption increases, so does the likelihood of being obese. Fizzy drinks also have an impact on oral health, resulting in an increase of dental caries (cavities or ‘holes in your teeth’) and tooth extraction in children. Water and milk are the best drinks for children’s health and wellbeing.


What does this mean for Northland?
In 2017, 20% of children living in Northland consumed three or more fizzy or energy drinks per week. This percentage was consistent with that over the previous three years (2014 to 2017), with no significant differences noted. There was also no significant difference in the percentage of children consuming three or more fizzy or energy drinks per week in Northland compared to New Zealand as a whole.


Did you know?


Sugar-sweetened beverages are the leading source of sugar in childrens’ diet. See the image below to find out just how much sugar is hidden away in some common drinks. Remember - water is the best choice, and it’s free!


Source credit: Health Promotion Agency NZ


* New Zealand Health Survey , Children, Nutrition 2013/14-2016/17 (age-standardised), Ministry of Health.
“Fizzy drinks” are carbonated beverages with added sugar or sugar substitute.
A 95% confidence interval is a range of values that one can be 95% certain contains the true mean or proportion of the population.

Fast Food Intake of Children Living in Northland*

2014 - 2017

What is it?
The indicator shows the percentage of children aged 2 to 14 years old, who consumed fast food at least 3 times in the week prior to responding to the New Zealand Health Survey. Fast food is categorised as food purchased from a fast food or takeaway shop, (e.g., fish and chips, pizza). The shaded area represents the 95% confidence interval for each estimate.

Why is it important?
The frequency of consuming fast foods and takeaways is an indication of the quality of diet children are receiving. Fast food and takeaway options are often high in calories, saturated fat, sugar and sodium. A low intake of these nutrients is recommended for a healthy diet and for reducing the risk of chronic illnesses such as high blood pressure and diabetes.


What does this mean for Northland?
The consumption of fast food or takeaways three or more times per week remained consistent from 2014 to 2017, with no significant difference in the proportions for children living in Northland compared to New Zealand. Overall, in 2017 around 8% of children living in Northland consumed fast food or takeaways three or more times per week.


* New Zealand Health Survey , Children, Nutrition 2013/14-2016/17 (age-standardised), Ministry of Health.
A 95% confidence interval is a range of values that one can be 95% certain contains the true mean or proportion of the population.

Physical Activity amongst Children in Northland*

2014 - 2017

What is it?
The indicator shows the percentage of children (aged 5 -14 years) living in Northland who participate in ‘active transport’ to and from school. That is, who walk, cycle or travel with non-motorised modes to get to and from school, as well as the percentage of children (aged 2 - 14 years) who watch two or more hours of television a day. These measures are used as a proxy for overall physical activity in children. The shaded area represents the 95% confidence interval for each estimate.

Why is it important?
Physical activity is important in achieving a healthy lifestyle and reducing the risk of illness amongst children and adolescents. Regular physical activity is beneficial to the healthy development of musculoskeletal tissue and cardiovascular systems, and to maintain a healthy weight. Physical activity has also been associated with supporting young people to have control over symptoms of anxiety and depression.


What does this mean for Northland?
In 2017, approximately 24% of children living in Northland walked, cycled or used other non-motorised modes to get to and from school. This proportion has declined since 2014, when around 30% of children were physically active in getting to and from school. In 2017, 46% of children living in Northland spent two or more hours a day watching television. As seen in the graph there was no significant difference in the physical activity level of children living in Northland compared to New Zealand as a whole.


* New Zealand Health SurveyChildren, Physical Activity 2013/14-2016/17 (age-standardised), Ministry of Health.
A 95% confidence interval is a range of values that one can be 95% certain contains the true mean or proportion of the population.

Physical Activity amongst Adults in Northland*

2014 - 2017

What is it?
The indicator shows the trend in physical activity for adults living in Northland from 2014 to 2017. The shaded area represents the 95% confidence interval for each estimate.

Why is it important?
Physical activity is an important part of wellbeing and can support the prevention and management of a number of health conditions. Not being physically active can increase your risk of a number of health conditions, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers. The Ministry of Health recommends adults have a minimum of 150 minutes of moderate physical activity per week weekly to maintain a healthy lifestyle.


What does this mean for Northland?
When surveyed in 2017, just under half (49%) of Northland adults were ‘moderately active’. This was a similar proportion to that of New Zealand as a whole.


Did you know?


Hatea Loop in Whangarei is a great place to exercise for free! There is a 4.2 km wheel-chair and push-chair friendly walking track, as well as multiple outdoor exercise stations. The equipment was designed with all ages in mind, offering something for everyone, and was funded through a collaboration between Whangarei District Council, Lions Club Whangarei and NDHB. Use the equipment to add in strength and flexibility activities to your walk, cycle or run around the loop.


Source credit: Whangarei District Council


* New Zealand Health Survey, Adult, Physical Activity 2013/14-2016/17 (age-standardised), Ministry of Health.
A 95% confidence interval is a range of values that one can be 95% certain contains the true mean or proportion of the population.

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